Parental Motivation and Academic Performance of Students in Social Studies: A Case Study of Junior Secondary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area of AkwaIbom

by iniobongokon

Parental Motivation and Academic Performance of Students in Social Studies: A Case Study of Junior Secondary Schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. To get full projects from chapters one to five, contact us.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents a review of relevant and related literature as discussed under the following sub-headings.

2.1     The Concept of Parental Motivation

2.2     Parental Assistance and Academic Performance

2.3     Parental Education Level and Academic Performance

2.4     Parental Income Level and Academic Performance

2.5     Summary of Review of Related Literature

The Concept of Parental Motivation

Parental motivation is the parental reason for children’s actions, willingness, and goals in school. Motivation is derived from the word motive in the English language which is defined as a need that requires satisfaction. These needs could also be wants or desires that are acquired through the influence of culture, society, lifestyle, etc., or generally innate. Motivation is one’s direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior, a set of forces that acts behind the motives. An individual’s motivation may be inspired by others or events (extrinsic motivation) or it may come from within the individual (intrinsic motivation) (Ryan and Deci, 2010).

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There are two broad types of motivation which are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Intrinsic motivation is the self-desire to seek out new things and challenges, analyze one’s capacity, and observe and gain knowledge (Ryan and Deci, 2010). It is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or a desire for consideration.

The two necessary elements for intrinsic motivation are self-determination and an increase in perceived competence. In short, the cause of the behavior must be internal, known as the internal local of causality, and the individual who engages in the behavior must perceive that the task increases their competence. Students who are intrinsically motivated are more likely to engage in the task willingly as well as work to improve their skills, which will increase their capabilities.

Frank (2016) posited that intrinsic motivation can be long-lasting and self-sustaining. Efforts to build this kind of motivation are also typically efforts at promoting pupil learning. Such efforts often focus on the subject rather than rewards or punishments. Intrinsic motivation comes from within one’s self. Pursuing challenges and goals is easier and more enjoyable when intrinsically motivated to complete a certain objective.

Another type of motivation is extrinsic motivation comes from influences outside of the individual such as the parents. Usually, extrinsic motivation is used to attain outcomes that a person would not get from intrinsic motivation. Common extrinsic motivations from parents to the children include parental involvement, educational level of the parents, income level, and rewards, for example, money for showing the desired behavior, and the threat of punishment following misbehavior (Ekanem, 2016).

Cheering parents and the desire for their children to have good grades in school are also extrinsic incentives (James, 2017). The simplest distinction between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is the type of reasons or goals that lead to action. While intrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, extrinsic motivation refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome. Extrinsic motivation thus contrasts with intrinsic motivation, which is doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, instead of for its instrumental value (Ryan and Deci, 2010).

2.2     Parental Assistance and Academic Performance

Parental Assistance refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to schooling and her child’s education. In this study, parental assistance in education was measured in terms of assistance of students with assignments at home and parental participation in school meetings and provision of learning materials.

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Ogden (2011) conducted a study that aimed at identifying the influence of parental assistance on students’ academic performance and attitudes in social studies. The findings of the study showed that the differences were statistically significant between the means of students’ performance tests as students in the experimental group obtained higher scores than those in the control group.

The findings concluded that students whose parents assist them in doing assignments and homework at home are better academically than students whose parents do not assist them in doing assignments and homework at home.

Okon (2016) studied the effect of parental support in children’s education on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in the Abak Local Government Area. The population of the study was made up of 3425 junior secondary three students.

The study’s findings showed that the academic performance of students from parents whose parents assist them in education is superior to the academic performance of students whose parents do not assist them at home in integrated social studies in secondary schools in the Abak Local Government Area. Therefore, parental assistance enhances the academic performance of students in integrated social studies.

Percus (2011) examined the effect of parental motivation on secondary schools school students’ academic performance in Basic science in secondary schools in Etinan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. The study adopted a pretest-posttest nonequivalent group design and was carried out in Etinan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria.

Three research questions were answered and three hypotheses were tested. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and independent t-tests. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between the students who are motivated by their parents and those who are not motivated by their parents and recommended that parents should motivate their children to learn Basic science.

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