Influence of Family Factors on Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary School Students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

by iniobongokon

Influence of Family Factors on Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary School Students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

The study aims to investigate the influence of family factors on academic performance in Economics among secondary school students in the Ukanafun Local Government Area.

The review of the literature was carried out under the following sub-headings: Concept of Family; Parental Educational Attainment and Academic Performance of Students; Parent income level and academic performance of students, parent occupation and academic performance of students; family size and academic performance. 2. 1 Concept of the Family is the child’s first environment which a child is born into, the family includes the father, mother, and sibling (s) of which the child’s potential of becoming whatever is the desire of him/her.

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The family in the context of human society is a group of people affiliated either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage) spouses, parents, brothers, sisters, sons/daughters, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephew’s, nieces.

Sometimes these people are also called or considered members of immediate family depending on the individual specific relationship (Iboro, 2010). In most societies like Nigeria, the family is the principal institution for the socialization of children. One of the primary functions of the family involves providing a framework for the production and reproduction of persons, biologically and socially. This can occur through the sharing of materials substances (such as food); the giving and receiving of care and nurture; rural right and obligations.

Thus, one’s experience of one’s family shifts overtime. From the perspective of the children, the family sense to locate children socially and plays a major role in their enculturation and socialization. From the point of view of parent(s) the family has the goal of which is to produces and acculturate and socializes children (Ejide 2013).

Harris (2011) further stated that family is a basic social unit consisting of parents and their children, considered as a group, whether dwelling together or not. Also, that family is a social unit consisting of one or more adult together with the children they care for. It is important to understand that the family is the basic unit of society.

The family is the subject of this lengthy article for this reason. 2.2 Parental Education Attainment and Academic Performance Parent’s education is an important factor found in literature to have a positive relationship with students’ academic performance. According to Smith and Francesconi (2010), there is a significant relationship between each parent’s educational level and their children achievement in school. Mother education has a strong association with her children academic performance than that of the further.

This result was supported by Agus (2012) who asserted that the level of education of mother has been found to have strongest influence on academic performance as compared to the father level of education. Guest (2010) found out that children from parents who attain formal education do show self-involvement in the education of their children.

Confirming this, Hanson (2013) in his study on family background and academic performance of students in Ekiti State secondary schools, found out that the level of education of parents influence their children academic performance in secondary schools. Guest concluded that parents who are not educated should attend adult education programme in order to improve their educational level.

In a study of educational attainment of parents and students’ academic performance in Western Nigeria, Ogulade (2011) opined that children from illiterate families perform worse than their counterparts from the educational families. He added that parents who are relatively higher in levels of education tend to transmit to their children more culture of the academic they acquired than parents who are illiterates or semi-illiterate. The investigation further revealed that parents’ positive values attainment. Smart (2012) further concluded that in most families today it is apparent that parents educational level correlate positively with the academic performance of their children, for formal educated parents are more likely to give their children practice in their school subjects progress report and assignment records and function as academic (2013) posited that educated parents usually show interest in their children academic performance, choose subject, meet and collaborate with administrators of higher institutions to ensure their children’s rate of seriousness in the studies. Durojaiye (2011) established that when variable such as income, occupation and educational attainment of parents are correlated with the academic performance of students there is usually a positive relationship signifying that parents’ educational level influence the academic performance of students in schools. On the contrary, Valencia (2010) was of the view that the parental educational attainment does not have any significant relationship with the academic performance of students as their performance is influenced by the level of their participation during the teaching-learning process. According to Adeyemo (2013) the family is one of the agencies of education; the first station through which the child entered the world.

The first impression is created in child by the mother and then the siblings (if any), the father and other members’ of the family. The child would be successful, if the family plays its role well otherwise he/she experience failure, it is worthy of note that a child does not attend a special class to learn his mother’s tongue or the language of the immediate environment, nor does he inherit it, but learn it by imitating the Ezenwu (2015) noted that students from educated parents adjust easily to school life than their counterparts from uneducated parents.

These adjustment increase their academic performance of students. Ezenwu concluded that the level of educational attainment of the parents relates significantly with the academic performance of their children. According to Davi (2015) have also noted that well educated parents are likely to provide both financial and materials support to their children to ensure the progress in school. They contended children from deprived income background lagged behind in most experts of school learning as parents are unable to provide financial and materials aids for their education and these affect their achievement in school. This is to say that children from deprived educational background of parents could be sent from school.

Influence of Family Factors on Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary School Students in Ukanafun Local Government Area.


This chapter is written under the following subheadings: summary; conclusion; implication of the study; recommendations and suggestions of further study.
5.1 Summary
This research work examined the family factors on academic performance in Economics among secondary school students in Ukanafun Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 alpha levels of significance. Literatures relevant to the study were reviewed conceptual framework and empirical framework. The population of the study comprised of two thousand three hundred and thirty-six (2336) students in all six secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

The sample size of this study consisted of 200 Economics students drawn from five senior secondary two (SS2) classes. The Questionnaire on Family Factor and Academic Performance in Senior Secondary Schools (QFFAPSS) and Actual scores of students in Economics in promotional examination in 2020/2021 academic session were the instruments used to collect data for the study. Data obtained for the study were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics analysis, and findings showed that:
1. There is a significant difference in academic performance in Economics students whose parents are formally educated and those whose parents are not formally educated in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
2. There is a significant difference in academic performance in Economics students whose parent income is high and these whose parent income is not high in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.
5.2 Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that students from formally educated parents perform better in Economics than students from none formally educated parents and also the higher the income level of parents, the higher the level of academic performance of students. This therefore means that parents educational level and parents income influence the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

1. Government should declare free education at all levels to enable illiterate parents to improve their selves academically.
2. Adult literacy programmes should be introduce in each wards of the local government on their education.
3. Government should make economic policies that will boost the economic and create jobs opportunities for the low income earners.
4. Teachers should identify two students from low parents and give them more attention during learning situation in other to help them to perform academically well.
5.4 Suggestions for further Study
(i) The research was restricted to only one local Government area in Akwa Ibom State. Further study should be carried out in other Local Government Areas in Akwa Ibom State.
(ii) Similar study should be undertaken in other subject areas like Government, Civic Education and Social studies.

Adeyemo, F. D. (2013). Influence of study interest and parental background on the attitude of secondary school students towards Mathematics in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 3(6), 229-232.

Agbaje, H. K. & Awodun, T. (2014). Impact of parents’ income on students’ academic performance in science in senior secondary school examination in Ekiti West Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Journal of Educational Research, 3 (2), 246-259.

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