Integration of Instructional Materials; Effective Teaching-Learning of Integrated Science in Junior Secondary Schools
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter discussed on the following subheadings which focused on the studies that have been carried out by other researchers on the instructional material usage in the teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools and it is reviewed under the following sub-title, the concept of instructional materials, utilization of visual instructional Materials and students’ learning of Integrated Science, utilization of audio-visual materials and student learning of Integrated Science, as well as summary of literature review.
2.1 The Concept of Instructional Materials
Instructional materials have been referred to as teaching aids, instructional or educational facilities, learning resources, educational technology, media materials and curriculum materials. Instructional materials according to Udogu and Enukora (2017) can be defined as any device employed by teachers to transmit facts, facilitate skills/knowledge acquisition and improve on understanding of learnt concepts. They encompass models, objects, drawings, graphs and still-pictures, pictures, films and specimens. Instructional materials are natural and artificial resources which teachers use to aid or facilitate teaching and learning of Integrated Science in a classroom setting. They are educational inputs which are of vital importance to the learning of science subjects including Integrated Science in secondary schools. A well-planned utilization of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science will do much to reduce lack of interest, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arousing students’ interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train the students to think things out themselves (Udoidiong, 2017).
The utilization of instructional materials by teachers in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science are necessitated by the fact that the learners have their differences and on the fact that learning is more effective if it takes place through the five senses of hearing, seeing, tasting, touching, and smelling. The greater the number of senses involved in teaching and learning of Integrated Science, the higher the level of learners’ absorption and participation. It is necessary that a teacher should use all available machinery in guiding student’s learning and these machineries that can be used in guiding learning are called instructional or teaching materials (NERD, 2009). For a Integrated Science teacher, these resources are indispensable tools in his/her hands for the performance of the tasks of teaching. Instructional materials in the learning of Integrated Science facilitates the process of teaching/learning of scientific skills such as experimenting, predicting, observing, measuring, data collection, recording and conclusion.
Instructional materials also assist teachers in transmitting facts, skills, attitude and knowledge to the learners within the instructional system. Egede, (2005) explained that there are many things which a dull student cannot learn if they are presented only verbally to him/her; also that there are those things which the dull and bright students cannot fully comprehend unless the teacher makes integration of teaching aids. Therefore, the utilization of instructional materials may seem to have a positive impact on the teaching-learning of students in Integrated Science in secondary schools. This makes the present study a necessity.
Oluyer, (2013), while stressing on the importance of instructional technology commented that, if recently introduced system of education (6-3-3-4) in accordance with the national policy on education is to be a success, then instructional material have a role to play. Balogan (2014) opined that, instructional material and situation help to bring about permanent and meaningful experience, in enumerating the factors that could be responsible for varying intra-inter-school/Integrated Science teaching.
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Coombs, (2015) listed four (4) important factors including the acute scarcity of instructional materials which can constrain educational systems from responding more fully to new demands. He claimed that in order for the government to do their part in meeting Crisis in education, educational system will need real materials that money can buy. They will need further share of the nation manpower, not merely to carry on the present work of education, but to raise its quality efficiency and acquisition of various skills according to Eshiet (2013), consist of a network of several million chains of stimulus response units, form as a result of teacher, learner, learner and learner-material interactions, central to this interaction is the process of perception.
The foundation of learning is perception which is a situation where by an individual becomes aware of his environment. The individual style of perception is unique to such individual’s previous experience, attitude, knowledge and interest.
The learning acquisition of concept and principles in different subject’s area would depend largely on the teachers’ ability to generate several example and non-example reflecting on overlap and experience of the teacher and learners through source material usage. The important component in the teaching of Integrated Science in secondary schools depends largely on the usage of instructional materials. According to Awotua-Etebo (2012), instructional material enables a teacher to promote multiple sense of learning in his or her students. As established by theories teaching process, the earlier it is for students to remember (recall) what they have learnt. Gibson (2014) concluded that, a well planned and imaginative instructional material usage including visual and audio-visual material in a lesson should do much to banish apathy supplement in adequacy of book for effective teaching.
2.2 Reviews on Integration of Instructional Materials on Teaching/learning
- Visual Instructional Materials and teaching/learnong
Visual Instructional Materials these are materials that stimulate the sensory mode of vision. Although, teacher represent a large proportion of the input of an educational system. Coombs (2015), observe that almost everything a teacher uses to teach can be considered as an instructional material.
Ibe Bassey (2015), view it as object aid devices that are used by teachers to transmit and share their encoded lesson with their learners to encoded and facilitate effective learning. He further maintained that, for a teacher to achieve this, he must formulate and initiate such lesson.
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